Small Animal Medicine refers to the treatment and diagnosis of smaller animals, such as dogs and cats.
Our staff is highly trained and experienced in how to care for dogs and cats. Working with animals is our passion and we strive to provide the highest level of care possible for your pets.
Veterinarians like Dr. Bohard have dedicated their lives to keeping your pet happy and healthy for as long as possible. We strive to prevent illness and detect problems early when they are more easily treated. Just like humans, annual visits to the doctor keep your pet in tip top shape. Some of the things your pet may encounter at their annual preventative medicine visit include a nose to tail physical examination, vaccines, discussion on parasite prevention and nutrition, and bloodwork. Our pets can’t tell us exactly how they’re feeling and it’s difficult to know anything is wrong until the problem is severe enough that we can see symptoms. Especially as our pets age, routine physical exams and diagnostics can detect changes indicating a problem early on, allowing us to intervene on their behalf before major issues arise. Our goal is to see your pet reach their golden, or shall we say gray, years feeling as happy and healthy as possible. Routine preventative care is the way to get them there.
Vaccines are one of the safest and most cost-effective means of infectious disease prevention. The American Animal Hospital Association, who sets the standard for veterinary excellence, created our vaccination guidelines to best protect the health of your pet. Core vaccines are recommended for every pet, while non-core vaccines may be recommended based on that pet’s individual age, lifestyle, and geographic location.
Canine Core – recommended for all dogs
- Rabies – Oregon law requires all dogs to be vaccinated against rabies as early as three months of age. Additionally, Oregon law requires that un-vaccinated pets (dogs and cats) that may have been in contact with rabid animals to be vaccinated and quarantined for 4 months or euthanized. This could mean your pet if they’re bitten by another animal. The only way to test for rabies is a post-mortem (after death) analysis. Making sure your pet has a current rabies vaccination is the only way to avoid this tragic situations. Rabies is also zoonotic, which means it can infect people. Vaccinating pets not only protects them but it provides a “buffer zone” between humans and rabid wild animals. The rabies vaccine is recommended for all dogs and cats. It is initially given at 12 weeks of age, repeated in one year, then repeated every 3 years for life.
- Distemper, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus (DAPP)- Distemper is a contagious and serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems of puppies and dogs. It is often fatal, and dogs that survive usually have permanent, irreparable nervous system damage. Adenovirus has two types. Type 1 causes hepatitis, an infectious and potentially fatal disease of the liver, whereas Type 2 causes respiratory disease. Parainfluenza is a highly contagious respiratory virus and is one of the most common pathogens of infectious tracheobronchitis, also known as “kennel cough”. Parvovirus causes serious gastrointestinal disease, often in puppies, commonly known as “parvo.” The virus is spread by direct dog-to-dog contact and contact with contaminated feces (stool), environments, or people. The virus is resistant to heat, cold, humidity, and drying, and can survive in the environment for months. Treatment involves hospitalization with intensive care, and is not always successful. Most deaths from parvo occur within 48 to 72 hours of onset of signs. Due to the severity of these diseases should a dog contract the virus, this combination vaccine is recommended for all dogs starting as early as 6 weeks old. It is given in a “puppy booster” series every 3-4 weeks until 16 weeks of age. Then repeated in one year, then every 3 years for life.
Canine Non-core – recommended based on age, geography, and lifestyle
- Bordetella – Kennel cough, scientifically known as infectious tracheobronchitis, is a multi-factorial respiratory disease. It is caused by many different infectious agents, such as the Parainfluenza virus mentioned above, often in combination with each other. Bordetella bronchiseptica is the most common bacterial component of kennel cough. The Bordetella vaccine can lessen the severity of this contagious, respiratory disease and is recommended for dogs who will be spending time around other dogs, for example at grooming facilities, dog parks, boarding facilities, training classes, competitions or shows. Many of these facilities require the bordetella vaccine before allowing dogs to enter.
- Leptospira – These bacteria can be found worldwide in soil and water. They cause Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that affects animals and people. Infection in people can cause flu-like symptoms as well as liver or kidney disease. In dogs, the disease can cause a myriad of symptoms ranging from fever, vomiting, diarrhea, painful inflammation in the eyes, kidney failure, liver failure, severe lung disease, and bleeding disorders. When treated early and aggressively with intensive hospitalization and supportive care, the chances for recovery are good but there is still a risk of permanent kidney or liver damage. This vaccine is recommended for dogs whose lifestyle involves exposure to rivers, lakes, or streams; roaming on rural properties; exposure to wild or farm animals, even if in the backyard; and contact with rodents or other dogs.
- Lyme– Another zoonotic disease that affects both animals and humans, Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne (tick-borne) illness in the United States according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Transmitted through tick bites, the disease can be difficult to detect and can cause serious and recurring health problems. Therefore, it is best to prevent infection by taken appropriate measures to prevent tick bites, which may include topical or oral tick preventative products (see below), and/or vaccinating against the disease. Unfortunately, Lyme is not the only disease transmitted by ticks. Others include anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. For these reasons, topical or oral tick preventative products are typically recommended over the Lyme specific vaccine.
- Influenza -Similar to the human flu, canine influenza is a highly contagious disease easily spread from infected dogs to other dogs. Fortunately, canine influenza does not infect humans, nor does human flu infect dogs. The virus is spread by direct contact, nasal secretions (through barking, coughing or sneezing), contaminated objects (kennel surfaces, food and water bowls, collars, and leashes), and by people moving between infected and uninfected dogs. The symptoms of canine influenza can look similar to kennel cough and be mild to severe. Most dogs recover within 2-3 weeks. However, some dogs may develop secondary bacterial infections which may lead to more severe illness like pneumonia. Vaccination may not all together prevent an infection, but it may reduce the severity and duration of clinical illness. If you own or spend time around dogs it is extremely important to practice good hygiene and sanitation, including hand washing and thorough cleaning of shared items and kennels. Unlike the parvovirus discussed above, influenza viruses do not usually survive in the environment beyond 48 hours and are killed by commonly used disinfectants.
- Rattlesnake – The rattlesnake vaccine is a fairly new development, with more research becoming available all the time. As of date, we do not have strong evidence demonstrating how well this vaccine works and how long any protection might last in the dog. Additionally, this vaccine is only developed to provide protection against the Western Diamondback specifically. There are many factors that may decrease the effectiveness of this vaccine including 1) the type of snake, which is often unknown; 2) antibody titers may be overwhelmed in the face of severe envenomation, and 3) an individual dog may lack sufficient protection depending on its response to the vaccine and the time elapsed since vaccination. Regardless of being vaccinated or not, dogs bitten by a snake need veterinary care immediately. Rattlesnake aversion training remains an effective measure to decrease your dog’s risk of getting bite, especially until further progress is made on a vaccine. This training is offered in our area once a year through our partners at the Bend Veterinary Clinic.
Feline Core – recommended for all cats
- Rabies – Although not state mandated as for dogs, the rabies vaccine is absolutely recommended for all cats. Our feline friends may pose an even greater risk for contracting rabies as they typically spend more time outside and frequently hunt vermin. Even indoor cats can become exposed if they escape outside or infected carriers, like bats, get inside. Prevention is key, because otherwise the consequences are fatal. The furious form of rabies is most common in cats, with death coming within 10 days of clinical signs., so it is vitally important to vaccinate cats against rabies. Kittens should be first vaccinated at 12 weeks/3 months of age. Regardless of the age at first vaccination, a booster should be administered 1 year later. Subsequent vaccinations can occur every year or every 3 years depending on the labeled product used.
- Feline Rhinotracheitis (Herpes virus), Calicivirus, Panleukopenia virus (FRCP) – Rhinotracheitis, caused by Feline Herpesvirus-1, induces relatively severe upper respiratory tract disease with marked rhinitis, sneezing and conjunctivitis, which in some cases may lead to chronic signs. After infection, the virus goes into a latency period where it hides in the body without symptoms, until a stressful event allows reactivation of the virus and a flare up of signs. Disease is most commonly seen in young kittens and large groups of cats, such as in boarding and shelter facilities. Another contagious, respiratory virus is the Calicivirus. Similar to the herpesvirus, transmission is by direct contact or contaminated shared objects so groups of cats, as in shelters, are at the highest risk, particularly young kittens. Panleukopenia is a highly infectious disease with often high mortality. It is caused by the feline parvovirus, similar to canine parvo discussed above. Spread by fecal-oral route, signs include lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and fever, and, in most cases, a profound leukopenia (decreased immune cells). Like canine parvo, the feline virus is remarkably stable in the environment, remaining infectious for up to a year, depending on the conditions. Kittens are at the greatest risk of infection. This combination is recommended for all cats with an initial series of vaccinations ideally beginning at 6 weeks of age and repeated every 3–4 weeks until 16–20 weeks of age. Revaccination should take place 1 year after kitten vaccination or 1 year after the first vaccine in older cats. Thereafter, cats should be vaccinated once every 3 years.
- Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) – Cats infected with the leukemia virus shed it through body fluids, including saliva, feces, milk and urine. FeLV transmission occurs through sustained close contact among cats. Behaviors such as mutual grooming, sharing of food and water bowls and litter boxes, and fighting can contribute to transmission, primarily via saliva. Following exposure to the virus, cats are at risk of developing life long infection. FeLV-associated disorders include lymphoma, anemia, and secondary diseases associated with immune dysfunction. Administering the FeLV vaccine is recommended for all kittens, but is non-core for cats after their 1 year booster unless they are at risk of exposure. Cats at risk of exposure to FeLV have access to outdoors, live with known FeLV-infected cats, or live in a multiple-cat environment where the status of all cats is not known.
Feline Non-Core – recommended based on age, geography, and lifestyle
- Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) – Unlike the FeLV virus, kittens do not appear to be at higher risk than adults. This virus is present in saliva of infected cats and transmission is efficiently passed through bites wounds. Therefore, FIV infection is most likely to occur in male cats and free-roaming cats. Once infected, the virus causes slow, insidious damage to the immune system. Clinical signs may not even be present until secondary illness associated with immune dysfunction occurs. Because post-vaccination antibodies cannot be distinguished by antibodies created from natural infection, it is essential to test for the presence of FIV before a vaccine is given to ensure a negative status. The FIV vaccine is non-core and reserved only for cats at a high risk of exposure.
- Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) – Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an immune-mediated disease triggered by infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoV is found very commonly in cats; it is transmitted via the oral–fecal route between cats. Not all cats infected with coronavirus will develop infectious peritonitis. At this time, there is insufficient evidence that the FIP vaccine induces clinically relevant protection, and use of the vaccine is not recommended.
- Internal parasites – According to the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC), Deschutes County is a high risk area for hookworms, roundworms, and giardia, and moderate risk for whipworms. Thankfully, our climate does not support Heartworm as well as other places do. However, that doesn’t include traveling anywhere else with your pet, which can drastically alter their risk of exposure, which is why it’s so important to share your pet’s travel history with your veterinarian at their annual wellness visit. Not only is the thought of worms in your pet gross, they pose serious health risks to both you and your pet. For example, did you know humans can get hookworms from their pets? Annual fecal exams can detect the presence of parasite eggs and indicate which type of dewormer is most appropriate. Once your pet is worm free, we want to keep them that way with year round parasite prevention. These products come in the form of a tasty chew treat for your dog or an easy to apply topical liquid for your cat. When given consistently, these convenient preventative products, like Interceptor, Revolution, or Profender, provide protection year-round for your pet and therefore protect you and your family as well.
- External parasites – On our side of the mountains, we have less fleas than those in the valley, however we have a much higher risk for tick exposure. Tick bites can transmit several different, serious diseases including Lyme, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. All of the wonderful outdoor activities Deschutes County has to offer also provides an excellent opportunity for tick exposure, both for you and your pet. The best way to prevent these diseases is to prevent the tick from being able to attach long enough to bite and transmit them. Preventative products, like Bravecto available in both a dog and cat formulas, is given every 3 months to protect against ticks, with the added benefit of flea prevention as well. Don’t let ticks stop you and your pet from enjoying the great outdoors!
Nutrition has one of the biggest impacts on your pet’s health and well-being. There are so many brands and products out there it can be overwhelming to select the right one for your pet. Marketing and trends in the human food industry can further confuse the issue. When recommending the right food for your pet, your veterinarian considers their age, breed, body condition, lifestyle, and any medical issues they may be facing or likely to develop in the future. Your veterinarian uses their years of education, knowledge, and experience to recommend complete, balanced diets with all the nutrients your pet needs to thrive. Diet modification can add years to your pet’s life and dramatically enrich the special relationship you have with your pet. Kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, dental disease, arthritis, and allergies are just a few of the conditions significantly affected by diet. Call us to schedule a nutrition consult and get your pet on the road to a long, happy and healthy life. For more information on some of the ways nutrition can change your pet’s life, visit Hillspet.com.
Every visit with your veterinarian will include a physical exam, but some internal problems won’t show up on the outside until they are advanced and severe. Routine bloodwork assesses how all the body systems are functioning including kidney, liver, pancreas, thyroid, bone marrow, and the immune system. These become increasingly more important as our pet ages. Early detection and intervention allows problems to be addressed while still mild, adding years to your pets life, which is what we all want!
When the need arises, our in house diagnostic machines allow us to have results right away. When more in-depth analysis is indicated, we work closely with experts at specialized veterinary diagnostic labs to obtain results as quickly as possible, often within days.
Our state-of-the-art sterile surgical suite has everything we need to keep your pet safe during any surgical procedure including advanced monitoring, fluid delivery systems, and patient warming methods.
Rest assured that in addition to the skilled veterinarian actually performing the surgery, a dedicated team member will stay with your pet throughout the entire process, from induction to recovery, monitoring them every step of the way. Similar to a human hospital, our monitoring systems include blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, breathing rate, oxygen levels and temperature. Tracking these parameters allows the anesthesia team to make small adjustments that keep your pet in a healthy state, as well as detect and treat potential issues early.
Placing an IV catheter allows us to provide vital fluids that can be adjusted to maintain ideal blood pressure, as well as instant access should emergency medications need to be given during a crisis. Our heated surgical table blankets, heating pads and circulating air machines keep your pet warm during the procedure, which leads to a smoother recovery afterwards.
At Wickiup Animal Hospital, every measure is taken to ensure your pet has a safe, successful surgery with a smooth, rapid recovery so they can be back home spending time with you as soon as possible.
Dental care is vital to the overall health of any pet. Dental disease can lead to health issues with the heart, liver, and kidneys in addition to being painful. In fact, 80 percent of dogs and 70 percent of cats over three years of age suffer from some form of dental disease, making it the most common health issue among our pet population. A professional dental treatment under anesthesia to remove unhealthy plaque accumulation is the only way to keep dental disease at bay. Otherwise, as time goes on teeth decay and gums recede causing pain and infection at which point those diseased teeth must be extracted to restore a healthy, comfortable mouth. Dental extractions can require extensive oral surgery increasing cost and time under anesthesia for your pet. Routine dental care provided by your veterinary professional will keep your pet happier, healthier, and with more teeth in their mouth later in life!
Acupuncture is a traditional Eastern Medical technique that’s been used on humans for thousands of years. Dogs, cats and horses also benefit from acupuncture. Special needles are inserted into specific locations of the body to achieve specific nerve stimulation. The nervous system controls every part of the body’s function so influencing nerves with acupuncture needles can help promote healing after an injury or surgery, ease chronic pain, improve behavior/anxiety, reduce allergy flare ups and much more. Veterinarians and human practitioners alike have successfully integrated this technique to use in combination with Western medical practices to achieve a well rounded approach to patient care. Often acupuncture can allow decreasing or even eliminating medications needed, speed recovery, and overall improve your pet’s quality of life.
If your pet is in need of urgent assistance, please call us immediately to make an appointment, often available the same day. Our team of professionals will be able to determine the best course of action for your pet. If we don’t have the necessary tools to provide the care your pet requires, we will direct you to the best emergency facility available. If you pet is in need of emergency medical care outside of our business hours, please contact VRC and BAE.
When your pet isn’t feeling well, we know getting answers and treatments started right away is crucial. We offer in-house diagnostic equipment including X-ray imaging, microscopy and laboratory blood and urine analyzers that can provide insight into your pet’s condition quickly, getting your pet back to feeling their best as soon as possible. If more specialized send out testing is required, we partner closely with Idexx Veterinary Labs. Our goal is to always explain why each test is recommended and what information we will gain from it so you’re comfortable with your pet’s diagnostic plan.
Hospice and Euthanasia
Saying goodbye to your pet is never easy, even when we know we’re making the right decision. There are many factors that go into deciding to euthanize a pet, and it is a personal journey that differs with every family. The process can be emotionally and mentally draining, but you are not alone. Your pet care team is here to help in any way we can. We treat each case with compassionate and understanding care. From keeping your pet comfortable in their final days, to discussing their quality of life and talking through how and when to make the most difficult decision we as pet parent’s ever have to make, we are here to work alongside you, always keeping your pet’s comfort and happiness as our top priority. We also offer mobile euthanasia services if you feel saying goodbye in the comfort of your own home feels best for your family.